Transportation geotechnics associated with constructing and maintaining properly functioning transportation infrastructure is a very resource intensive activity. Large amounts of materials and natural resources are required, consuming proportionately large amounts of energy and fuel. Thus, the implementation of the principles of sustainability is important to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emissions, and to increase material reuse/recycling, for example. This paper focusses on some issues and activities relevant to sustainable earthwork construction aimed at minimising the use of energy and the production of CO2 while improving the in-situ ground to enable its use as a foundation without the consumption of large amounts of primary aggregate as additional foundation layers. The use of recycled materials is discussed, including steel slag and tyre bales, alongside a conceptual framework for evaluating the utility of applications for recycled materials in transportation infrastructure.